Psychology•March 7, 2023
Waking Life is a 2001 animated film directed by Richard Linklater that has received critical acclaim for its unique rotoscoped animation style and fascinating philosophical themes.
The film follows the journey of a young man named Wiley Wiggins, who is trapped in a never-ending lucid dreaming experience, being continuously swept from one philosophical discussion to another.
In this article, we will examine the meaning of Wiggins’ experience and how the dream-like atmosphere of the movie, along with the avalanche of philosophical conversations, challenge our perceptions about the world.
The dream-like atmosphere of “Waking Life” employs a unique rotoscoped animation style, which involves tracing over live-action footage to create an animated effect. This fluid and surreal style induces a dream-like atmosphere.
The visual and sound effects used in the film further enhance this atmosphere. The shifting and evolving animation style, along with the film’s use of ambient sound and music, pulls the viewer in.
In a scene that mimics the visuals from a real dream, the main character, Wiley Wiggins, walks through a morphing background as his face and body change in color and shape. In other scenes, the subject matter of the characters’ conversations is animated directly into the space. The film plays with colors, as well. Negative, heavy moments are depicted in faded and dark colors, while happier moments are animated in warm and light tones. These techniques create a more immersive experience for the viewer, guiding them to not only think about the subject of discussion but to visually absorb the content as well.
The film’s central themes revolve around existential and philosophical discussions. Some of the themes discussed are the meaning of life, the nature of existence, evolution, and lucid dreaming. These discussions ask the characters to think critically and challenge their own perceptions.
In one scene, Wiggins discusses complex language with a woman who makes the case that language is more magical than we presume. The language was initially necessary only for survival, allowing us to convey messages such as “be careful, there is a tiger” or “these berries are poisonous.” However, as we evolved as species, language became more complex, and we began to communicate emotions like anger, sadness, and love. Our capacity to relay complex feelings through language is still not completely understood, and in her opinion, this is almost magical.
Wiggins also speaks with a philosopher about the idea of free will and how it has troubled people since ancient times. It is problematic to consider how “free will” can coexist with an omniscient God. If a God exists who knows everything you will do, your path has already been sealed. Yet, scientists have discovered laws and principles governing our universe. The principles set in place at the time of the creation of our universe by the “Big Bang” could also determine our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.
Nevertheless, the philosopher mentions that our understanding of quantum mechanics paints a different picture. The movement of some of the tiniest particles that make up matter can only be understood using probabilistic theory. Their movement is chaotic and almost random. The discussion with the philosopher does not provide concrete answers to the problem of free will, but it makes us wonder if we are really free to make our own choices or if we are cogs in a deterministic machine.
“Waking Life” follows a non-linear narrative structure, which gives the movie a dream-like quality. This confusing structure makes the viewer reconsider what time really means.
The idea of time comes up throughout the film. Characters explain to Wiggins that the past and future are illusions, and the present moment is the only real experience we have.
For instance, a couple discusses the concept that after our body dies, there might be a few minutes when our mind is still active. In dreams, hours can pass, while in reality, we have only slept for a few minutes. The film’s characters make the point that during that brief time, we could live an entire imaginary life.
The movie does not try to provide clear answers to the problem of time or any other question but rather starts a conversation and intends to make the viewer question their assumptions about these philosophical subjects.
“Waking Life” is a thought-provoking, experimental film that challenges our perceptions, assumptions, and beliefs about reality through its dream-like atmosphere, its philosophical discussions, and non-linear structure.
The famous film critic Roger Ebert described the movie as a “cold shower of bracing clarifying ideas.” This description points out beautifully the impact of the fast-paced discussions that happen throughout the movie.
The discussions puncture through the darkness of ignorance that can settle once we stop questioning the world around us. They wake us up to the fact that the world doesn’t stop being fascinating once we reach adulthood. We only stopped looking around, forgetting how mysterious and amazing the universe is.
Whether you are a fan of animation, philosophy, or existentialism, “Waking Life” is a must-see that will help you contemplate the nature of existence long after you’ve finished it.
If you are interested in having real-life discussions around the meaning of life, or would like to pursue a profession as an explorer of the mysteries of the human mind, consider checking out our Psychology Program Overview or email an advisor to learn more about our programs.
“Waking Life” aims to challenge the viewer’s perceptions of reality. The film explores concepts such as reality vs. dreams, life vs. death, the subjectivity of life, existentialism, and the meaning of the world.
The film’s dream-like atmosphere and beautiful rotoscoping animation keep the viewer engaged throughout the journey into the realm of ideas, created with the interconnected web of conversations from the movie.
The underlying idea in each conversation Wiley Wiggins has is that reality is not what it seems, our understanding of it is limited, and there are many unsolved mysteries of reality we should continue to ponder.“Waking Life” does not give clear answers to the questions and concerns raised, but instead helps viewers reignite the child-like curiosity we all had at some point in our lives.
Richard Linklater, known for his introspective and philosophical storytelling, directed both "Waking Life" and "Before Sunrise." Both of these contemplative films also feature Julie Delpy and Ethan Hawke.
The philosophical themes in “Before Sunrise” are similar to the ones found in “Waking Life,” both touching on existential and philosophical questions that explore the nature of reality, the meaning of life, and the human condition.
The animation style of this film is truly impressive; the rotoscope technique gives its scenes a fluid, dream-like quality that sets a fitting atmosphere for philosophical discussions that challenge our assumptions about reality.
“Waking Life” features a talented cast of voice actors who bring depth to the characters and raw emotion to the philosophical discussions.
This film encourages us to embark on an introspective journey with the main character and actively engage our minds in the philosophical discussions presented. The themes are varied and touch on ideas such as free will, the meaning of life, lucid dreaming, the nature of reality, and vengeance.
However, underlying all discussions lies a problem that the film conveys to the viewer: when we reach adulthood, we tend to stop questioning the world due to a lack of time and energy. We might not be curious anymore about the world’s mysteries, and having lived for quite a while, we have normalized everything around us.
“Waking Life” shows us, through profound discussions, that reality is still full of wonders and unsolved problems. This thought-provoking and visually stunning film encourages us to be curious. It offers viewers a unique and memorable experience and may even change how they view the world.